A Dictionary of Terms and Encyclopedia of Persons from footnotes in the Wizard’s Historical Dream Literature Collection


A posteriori: reasoning from observations to deduce probable causes

A propos: “in regards to”

Ab extra: “from outside”

Abercrombie, John: (1780 – 1844) Scottish physician, author, philosopher and philanthropist. Writer of Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers (1830)

Accius, Lucius:(170 – 86 BC) Roman tragic poet and literary scholar

Achilles: mythological Greek hero of the Trojan War, as told in Homer’s Iliad

Achmet, son of Seirim: (c.653 – 729 A.D.) author of the Oneirocritica (or Oneirocriticon) of Achmet (c.7th century)

Addison, Joseph:(1672 – 1719) English essayist, poet, playwright and politician

Adjuvant: “of therapy,” as something applied for treatment

Adler, Alfred: (1870 – 1937) Austrian medical doctor and psychotherapist

Æolian harp: a musical instrument that is played by the wind, named for Aeolus, ancient Greek god of the wind; essentially a wooden box including a sounding board, with strings stretched lengthwise across two bridges

Aelianus, Claudius: (c.175 – 235) Roman author and rhetoritician

Aeschylus: (c.524 – 455/6 B.C.) ancient Greek author of tragedy, often described as the ‘father of tragedy,’ author of Agamemnon and Choephorae

Aesculapius: Latin name for the god of medicine

Africanus, John Leo: author of A Geographical Historie of Africa (c.1550)

Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius: (c.64 – 12 B.C.) Roman general, statesman and architect

Albumazar (Abu Ma’shar): (787 – 886 A.D.) Muslim astrologer

Alembick: alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube

Alexander of Aphrodisias: peripatetic philosopher and commentator in the late 2nd and early 3rd century A.D.

Alexander of Myndus (in Caria): 1st century A.D. Greek writer on diverse topics, including zoology and divination

Alimentary passage: a long tube of organs (including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines) that runs from the mouth to the anus

Alexander the Great (Alexander III, King of Macedon): (356 – 323) best known for his campaign of conquest throughout Western Asia and Northeast Africa, creating one of the largest empire in history by age thirty

Alighieri, Dante: (c.1265 – 1321) author of Divine Comedy (1320)

Alsted, Johann Heinrich: Alstedius’ Encyclobedia Biblica (1610, 1630)

Amanuensis: a literary or artistic assistant, often employed to take dictation or copy manuscripts

Ambrosius, Aurelius (Saint Ambrose):  (c.340 – 397) Bishop of Milan, theologian and influential 4th century ecclesiastical figure, called

Ammianus Marcellinus: (c. 330 – c. 391/400) Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from antiquity, writer of Res Gestae (or History)

Amnesia: memory loss; “without memory”

Amphictyon: king of Thermopylae and later Athens

Amyraldus, Moses (Moїse Amyraut): (1596 – 1664), French Huguenot, Reformed theologian and metaphysician; author of Discourse concerning Divine Dreams (1668)

Anaximenes: (6th century B.C.) of Miletus

Anecdotes for Youth: (book) listed in some sources as published in 1823 or 1825 by Reverend I. B. Watkins (about whom no biography could be obtained)

Animadversion: critical comment or censure

Anthony of Padua (Saint Anthony; Antony of Lisbon; Fernando Martins de Bulhoes): (1195 – 1231) Portugese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order

Antipater of Thessalonica:  1st century B.C. author of over a hundred epigrams in the Greek Anthology

Antonio, Giovanni (da Brescia): Italian engraver of northern Italy, active in the (approximate) period between 1490 and 1519

Aphonia: loss of ability to speak through disease or injury to the larynx or mouth

Aposteme: archaic medical term for abscess

Antiphon: Greek sophist philosopher and mathematician who is believed to have lived in Athens in the 5th century B.C.

Apollodorus: Tyrant of Cassendreia, 3rd century B.C.

Apoplexiae: bleeding of the internal organs; archaic reference to death which begins with a sudden loss of consciousness, and sometimes used to refer to only the simple loss of consciousness itself, leading to the modern use of a person being suddenly “apoplectic” (so overcome with strong anger that one is rendered speechless)

Apuleius (Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis): (c.124 – 170) Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician; author of The Golden Ass: Being the Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius (c. 2nd century)

Aqua vitae: concentrated aqueous solution of ethanol

Aquinas, Thomas: (1225 – 1274) Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church; author of Summa Theologica

Archeus: alchemical term referencing the “lowest or most dense aspect of the astral plane” which presides over growth and the continuation of living beings; later understood to be a “transmutation” of the sexual Libido (or sperm)

Artaxerxes I: King of Persia from 465 – 425 B.C.

Artemon the Milesian: prominent Christian teacher in rome c.230 A.D.

Aretius (ne Marti), Benedictus: (1505 – 1574) Swiss Protestant theologian and natural philosopher

Aristides of Lysimachus (“Aristides the Just”): (540 – 468 B.C.)

Aristotle: (384 – 322 B.C.) Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece; taught by Plato, founder of the Lyceum, the Peripatetic school of philosophy, and the Aristotelian tradition; author of History of Animals (Historia Animalium), Nicomachean Ethics (c.340 B.C.), On Sleep and Sleeplessness (c.350 B.C.)

Artemidorus Daldianus: professional diviner who lived in the 2nd century A.D.; known from an extant five-volume Greek work, the Oneirocritica

Assizes: a court which formerly sat at intervals in each county of England and Wales to administer the civil and criminal law. In 1972 the civil jurisdiction of assizes was transferred to the High Court, and the criminal jurisdiction to the Crown Court

Assoilize: to absolve, acquit; release from blame or sin

Assyrians: ethnically indigenous people of the Middle East, historically known as Syriacs, Chaldeans and Arameans

Astrampsychus: the Oneirocritica or Sortes Astrampsychi (Oracles of Astrampsychus) was a popular Greco-Roman fortune-telling guide ascribed to Astrampsychus, identified by ancient authors as a magus who lived in Persia before the conquest of Alexander the Great, or an Egyptian sage serving a Ptolemaic king

Astyages: (585 – 550 B.C),last king of the Babylonian Empire

Athenaeus of Naucratis: a Greek rhetorician and grammarian of the 2nd and 3rd century A.D.

Aubrey, John: (1626 – 1697) English antiquary, natural philosopher and author of Miscellanies (1696)

Aufidius, Attius Tullus: well-respected and influential military leader of the Volsci area in the Roman Republic circa early 5th century B.C.

Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; or Saint Augustine of Hippo): (354 – 430 A.D.) theologian, philosopher, and bishop of Hippo Regius in Numidia, Roman North Africa; author of Confessions an autobiographical work consisting of 13 books written in Latin between 397 and 400 A.D.

Augustus Ceasar (Gaius Octavius): (63 B.C. – 14 A.D.) Roman Emperor

Averroes (Auerrois, or  Abu al-Walid ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd): (1126 – 1198) Spanish-Arab philosopher, physician and jurist of Shariah law whom some credit for reintroducing Aristotelian thought to Western Europe


Babbage, Charles: (1791 – 1871) English polymath; mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer

Bacon, Francis: (1561 – 1626) philosopher; author of Novum Organon (1620)

Bain, Alexander: (1818 – 1903) Scottish philosopher, prominent and innovative figure in the fields of psychology, linguistics, logic, and moral philosophy

Baker, Sir Richard: (c.1568 – 1645), politician, historian and religious writer; author of the Chronicle of the Kings of England (1643)

Bakewell, Frederick Collier: (1800 – 1869) English physicist and author of Natural Evidence of a Future Life (1835)

Ballantyne, John: (1774 – 1821), Scottish publisher notable for his work with Walter Scott

Baptist Magazine: publication circulated from London, 1809 to 1904

Barry, Alfred: (1826 – 1910) third Bishop of Sydney (serving 1884 to 1889); unknown connection to Dr. William Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible (c.1863) as referenced in this text

Baxter, Andrew:  (1686 – 1750) Scottish metaphysician, author of Inquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul (1730)

Baxter, Richard: (1615 – 1691) English Puritan church leader, poet, hymnodist, theologian, and controversialist; author of The Reasons of the Christian Religion (1667)and The Certainty of the Worlds of Spirits (1691)

Bayle, Peter (Pierre):  (1647 – 1706) Huguenot Protestant and scholar, historian, literary critic (and arguable “subversive” of the Enlightenment); one of the most widely read philosophers of his age, in particular, his Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (1697) which was among the most popular works of the eighteenth century

Beattie, James: (1735 – 1803) Scottish poet, moralist, and philosopher; Professor of Moral Philosophy and Logic at Marischal College, in Aberdeen, Scotland; author of Dissertations, Moral and Critical (1783)

Beaumont, John: (c.1650 – 1731) English physician and early geologist; author of An Historical, Physiological, and Theological Treatise of Spirits (1705)

Bechstein, Johann Matthäus: (1757 – 1822), German naturalist, forester, ornithologist, entomologist and herpetologist, in Great Britain; known for his treatise on singing birds, Natural History of Cage Birds (1795)

Bede (Saint Bede, or Beda Venerabilis): (c.672 – 735 A.D.) English Benedictine monk; author of Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731 A.D.)

Bedell: an administrative official or assistant at a university

Beddoes, Thomas Lovell: (1803 – 1849) author of Deam-Pedlary, published in A Victorian Anthology (1895)

Bedlam: New Bethlehem hospital, est. in 1247 under the reign of Henry III; from whence the term derives for a “mad house,” or a commotion of disorder and chaos

Bembo, Pietro: (1470 – 1547) Italian scholar, poet and literary theorist; member of the Knights Hospitaller, and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church

Bennett, Enoch Arnold: (1867 – 1931) English author and novelist who wrote chronicles of English midland life

Bernard of Clairvaux: (1090 – 1153) known as a major leader in the revitalization of Benedictine monasticism in the Order of Cistercians

Bergson, Henri-Louis: (1859 – 1941), known for his arguments regarding experience and intuition being more significant than abstract rationalism and science

Berkeley, George: (1685 – 1753) Scottish philosopher

Beukelszoon, Johan: (1509 – 1536) proclaimed himself King of “New Jerusalem” (in Munster, Germany), put to death for insurrection in 1536

Beza, Theodore: (1519 – 1605) French theologian, author, translator and teacher

Binns, Edward: (d.1851), author of The Anatomy of Sleep (1842)

Bischoff, Theodore Ludwig Wilhelm von: (1807 – 1882) German physician and biologist

Blackie, John Stuart: (1809 – 1895) Scottish scholar and man of letters

Blacklock, Thomas: (1721 – 1791) Scottish poet and scholar

Blackwood’s Magazine: British publication of miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980, founded by William Blackwood (1776 – 1834)

Blake, William: (1757 – 1827) poet

Bloomfield, Robert: (1766 – 1823) English labor-class poet whose work is appreciated in the context of other self-educated writer; Farmer’s Boy (1800)

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich: (1752 – 1840) German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist; considered to be a main founder of zoology and anthropology as comparative, scientific disciplines

Boerhaave, Herman: (1668 – 1738) Dutch botanist, chemist, Christian humanist, and physician; regarded as the founder of clinical teaching, and of the modern academic hospital; sometimes referred to as “the father of physiology”

Boismont, Brierre de (Alexandre Jacques Francois Briere de Boismont): (1797 – 1881) French physician and psychiatrist; author of Natural History of Hallucinations (1853)

Bloomfield, Robert: (1766 – 1823) English labor-class poet whose work is appreciated in the context of other self-educated writer; Farmer’s Boy (1800)

Bonaparte, Napoleon: (1769 – 1821) French military and political leader

Bonnet, Charles: (1720 – 1793) Genevan naturalist and philosophical writer, responsible for coining the term phyllotaxis; among the first to use the term “evolution” in a biological context

Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne Lignel: (1627 – 1704) French bishop and theologian

Boswell, James: (1740 – 1795) Scottish biographer, diarist, and lawyer; author of Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1791)

Bosch, Hieronymus: (c.1450 – 1516) painter most famous for depictions of Biblical scenes and dreams

Bourbon, Louis de (Prince of Condé): (1530 – 1569), a prominent Huguenot leader and general; founder of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon

Bradford, John: (1510 – 1555) English reformer in the time of Queen Mary I, also documented in Foxe’s Book of Martyrs

Brahe, Tycho:(1546 – 1601) Danish astronomer

Bridgman, Laura Dewey: (1829 – 1889) first deaf-blind American child to gain significant education in the English language (fifty years before Helen Keller)

Brill, Abraham Arden: (1874 – 1948) Austrian-born psychiatrist; first psychoanalyst to practice in the U.S. and the first translator of Sigmund Freud into English

Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins: (1783 – 1862) English physiologist and surgeon; author of Psychological Inquiries (1854)

Brooks, Thomas: author of Apples of Gold (1660)

Brougham, Lord Henry: (1778 – 1868) British statesman who became Lord High Chancellor; author of Discourse of Natural Theology (1835)

Broughton, Thomas: (1704 – 1774) English clergyman, biographer, and author of A Prospect of Futurity (1768)

Brown, John: (1735 – 1788) Scottish  physician and the creator of  the Brunonian system of medicine (which regards and treats disorders as caused by defective or excessive “excitation”)

Brown-Séquard, Charles-Édouard (1817 – 1894), physiologist and neurologist who, in 1850, became the first to describe what is now called Brown-Séquard syndrome, caused by damage to one half of the spinal cord resulting in paralysis and loss of proprioception on the same side as the injury or lesion, and loss of pain and temperature sensation on the opposite side as the lesion

Browne, Sir Thomas: (1605 – 1682) English polymath and author of varied works in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric; author of Religio Medici (1642), and On Dreams (essay)

Browning, Robert: (1812 – 1889) English poet and playwright

Bruck, Gregor (Gregorius Pontanus): (1483 – 1557) dubbed “The Lawyer of the Reformation” in his legal work for Luther in the 16th century

Brutus, Lucius Junius: legendary founder of the Roman Republic and one of it’s first consuls in 509 B.C.

Bubber: a person who steals from pubic houses

Buffon, Count Georges-Louis Leclerc de: (1707 – 1788) French naturalist, remembered for his comprehensive work Natural History (Histoire Naturelle) published c.1749

Bull, Bishop; The Office of the Holy Angels towards the Faithful (no reference could be found for this person or text)

Bullinger, Heinrich: (1504 – 1575) successor of Ulrich Zwingli

Bunyan, John:(1628 – 1688), English writer and Puritan preacher; author of Pilgrim’s Progress (1678/1684)

Burnet, Bishop Gilbert: (1643 – 1715) Scottish philosopher and historian, and Bishop of Salisbury; author of Life and Death of John, Earl of Rochester (1795, 1680)

Burse: archaic form of “purse” (as in sack or pouch), from the latin bursa (as in bursitis)

Burthogge, Richard (of Devon): (c.1637 – 1705) England; physician, magistrate and philosopher

Burton, John: (1710 – 1771) English physician

Burton, John Hill: (1809 – 1881) Scottish advocate, historian and economist; author of Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scotland (1852)

Burton, Robert: (1577 – 1640) author of The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621)

Butler, Bishop Joseph: (1692 – 1752) was an English Anglican bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher; author of The Analogy of Religion (1736)

Butler, Samuel: (1613 – 1680) poet and satirist, remembered chiefly for his long satirical poem Hudibras (1663)

Byron, Lord George Gordon: (1788 – 1824) often known simply as Lord Byron; English peer, poet and politician, leading figure of the Romantic movement; writer of the poems The Dream (1816) and Incantation from Manfred (1817)


Cabanis, Pierre Jean Georges: (1757 – 1808) philosopher

Caduceus: winged heraldic staff twined with serpents used as a symbol of the medical profession; “The Staff of Hermes” from Greek mythology

Caeteris paribus (ceteris paribus): “with other conditions remaining the same”

Calignon, Sieur Soffrey de: (dates unknown) referenced in some places as a student tutored by John Cameron

Calvin, John: (1509 – 1564) French theologian and ecclesiastical statesman

Cameron, John: (1579 – 1623) Scottish theologian

Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) (188 – 217 A.D.) Roman emperor from 198 to 217 A.D.

Cardan, Jerome (Gerolamo Cardano): (1501 – 1576) was an Italian polymath, mathematician,  physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler; author of  Somniorum Synesiorum omnis generis insomnia explicantes libri IV (1858)

Carmichael, Andrew: Essay on Dreaming; Memoir of the Life and Philosophy of Spurzheim (1833); no information found on this author

Carpenter, William Benjamin: (1813 – 1885)

Carrington, Hereward: (1880 – 1958) British-American investigator of psychic phenomenon and author of Psychical Phenomena and the War (1918)

Carus, Titus Lucretius: (c.99 – 55 B.C.) author of On the Nature of Things

Cassander: (c.355 – 297 B.C.) king of the ancient kingdom of Macedon and de facto ruler of southern Greece from 317 B.C. until his death

Cassandra (Kassandra; Alexandra): Trojan priestess of Apollo cursed to tell true prophecies and never be believed

Cassian, John (John the Ascetic): (c.360 – 435 A.D.)  monk and theologian

Casuist: a person who uses clever but unsound reasoning, especially in relation to moral questions; a sophist

Catarrh: inflammation of the mucous membranes causing an excessive flow of fluids in the nose and throat; also called “post-nasal drip”

Catherine de’ Medici: (1519 – 1589) Italian noblewoman; queen consort of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II; mother of kings Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III

Catherine of Siena (Saint Catherine): (1347 – 1380) mystic, activist and author of The Dialogue of Divine Providence

Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal: founded by Scottish publisher William Chambers (1800 – 1883) between 1832 and 1856

Charles II: King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685

Charles IX: Protestant King of France (1550 – 1574)

Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier de: (1682 – 1761) French Jesuit priest, traveler and historian

Chartot, Jean-Martin: (1825 – 1893) French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology; known for work in hypnosis and hysteria

Chatterton, Thomas: (1752 – 1779) English Romantic poet

Chaucer, Geoffrey:  (c.1340s – 1400) English poet and author of The Nun’s Priest’s Tale (c.1390) and The Canterbury Tales (c.1400)

Chemnitius, Johann: (1612 – 1668) Estonian clergyman

Cheselden, William: (1688 – 1752) English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery; influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession

Christian Spectator: theological journal published from 1819 to 1828

Chrysippus: (c.279 – c.206 B.C.) Greek Stoic philosopher

Chrysostom, John: (c.347 – 407) early Church Father and Archbishop of Constantinople, known for his denunciations regarding abuse of authority by ecclesiastical and political leaders

Churchyarde, Thomas: (c.1523 – 1604) English author and soldier; writer of numerous semi-autobiographical verse collections including Churchyarde’s Chippes (1575)

Cicero, Marcus Tullius: (c.106 – 43 B.C.) Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic Skeptic; author of De Divinatione (44 B.C.), and De Natura Deorum (45 B.C.)

Cilicia: ancient region of Anatolia (now Turkey) which hosted many civilizations across numerous wars and conquests

Cimmerii (Cimmerians): nomadic Indo-European people which appeared about 1000 B.C., and are mentioned later in 8th century B.C. in Assyrian records

Citrine: a yellow toned crystal, traditionally considered a “healing crystal” containing “solar energy” and linked to the Third Chakra (solar plexus)

Clarapede, Edouard: (1873 – 1940) Swiss neurologist, child psychologist and educator

Claricord: medieval keyboard instrument now known as the clavicord

Clarion: an early form of trumpet (as in the expression “clarion call”)

Claudian (Claudius Claudianus): (c. 370 – 404 A.D.), Latin poet associated with the court of the Roman emperor Honorius

Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens): (c.150 – 215 A.D.) Christian theologian and philosopher

Cleomenes of Lacedemonian: Spartan King Cleomenes I (c.519 – 491 B.C.)

Cleon: (d.422) Athenian general during the Peloponnesian War

Clerk, Lady (of Penicuik): a search for references turned up only a painting of the Lord Clerk and his wife c.1791

Combe, Andrew: (1797 – 1847) Scottish physician and phrenologist

Concupiscence: lust or strong sexual desire

Consumption: now called Tuberculosis, a bacterial disease of the lungs

Contemned: to treat or regard with contempt

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor: (1772 – 1834) English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian; writer of the poem Kubla Khan, or a Vision in Dream (1816) and The Pains of Sleep (1803)

Collins (Life of): the Memoirs of the Life of William Collins (1848)

Colquhoun, John Campbell: Scottish politician and writer of Isis Revelata (1836)

Condillac, Étienne Bonnot de: (1714 – 1780), French philosopher and epistemologist who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind

Condorcet, Nicholas de (Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet) (1743 – 1794) French philosopher and mathematician

Confute: “prove to be wrong” (as in refute)

Contumelious: scornful and insulting; insolent

Cooper, Sir Astley Paston: (1768 – 1841), British surgeon and anatomist; historical contributor to otology, vascular surgery, anatomy and pathology of the mammary glands and testicles, and pathology and surgery of hernia

Cossin-maker: makers of small-sized objects, especially of little value or interest

Cotqueen (Cot-quean): a coarse, masculine woman; a man busied with “women’s work” or affairs

Cowper, William: (1731 – 1800) Englsh poet; writer of The Solitude of Alexander Selkirk

Crabbe, Rev. George: (1754 – 1832) author of The World of Dreams (1834)

Cratippas (Cratippus) of Athens: (c.375 B.C.) Greek historian

Cratippas (Cratippus) of Pergamon: 1st century Peripatetic philosopher

Cromwell, Thomas Kitson: (1792 – 1870) English dissenting minister and antiquary; author of The Soul and the Future Life (1859)

Crowe, Catherine: (1803 – 1876) English novelist, writer of social and supernatural stories, and playwright; author of The Night Side of Nature (1847)

Cruse: an earthenware pot or jar

Cullen, William: (1710 – 1790) Scottish physician, chemist and agriculturalist, professor at the Edinburgh Medical School

Cuspinianus, Johannes: (1473 – 1529), born Austrian humanist, scientist, diplomat, and historian; author of De Ceasaribus et Imperaribus Romanorum (c.1520)

Cyprian (Thaschus Caecilius Cyprianus): (210 – 258 A.D.) bishop of Carthage and a notable early Christian writer

Cyrus the Elder (Cyrus the Great, or Cyrus II): (600 – 530 B.C.) founder of the Achaemenid Empire (the first Persian Empire)


Darwin, Erasmus: (1731 – 1802) Charles Darwin’s grandfather; leading intellectual of eighteenth century England; respected physician, poet, philosopher, botanist, and naturalist; author of Zoonomia; or the Laws of Organic Life (1794 -1796)

Davy, Sir Humphry: (1778 – 1829), Cornish chemist and inventor

De Aubigne, Jean-Henri Merle: (1794 – 1872) was a Swiss Protestant minister and historian of the Reformation; author of History of the Reformation in the Sixteenth Century (1800)

De Manaceine, Marie: (1841 – 1903) Russian neuroscientist in the field of physiological chemistry, somnology and biochemistry

Delirium tremens: a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol. Symptoms last for two to three days. Physical effects may include shaking, shivering, irregular heart rate, sweating and hallucinations

Dephlogisticated: original term for “oxygen deprived” (now: hypoxic)

Delectation: pleasure or delight

Demetrius of Phalerum: (c.350 – 280 B.C.), an Athenian orator, student of Theophrastus (and perhaps of Aristotle), and one of the first Peripatetics

Demurres: objections

Dendy, Walter Cooper: (1794 – 1871) English surgeon and writer; author of Phenomena of Dreams (1832), and Philosophy of Mystery (1841)

Dicaearchus: (350 – c. 285 B.C.) Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author; Aristotle’s student in the Lyceum

Dii majores: the 12 greater gods of Roman mythology (Juno, Vesta, Venus, Mars, etc.)

Dignus vindice nodus: “a knot or difficulty worthy of such hands to untie” or, in modern parlance “a question to be determined by a wise judge

Diodati, Giovanni: (1576 – 1649) Calvinist theologian and translator

Diogenes Laertius: (3rd century A.D.) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers; author of Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers

Dionysius I: (c.432 – 367 B.C.) Greek tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily

Disraeli, Benjamin: (1804 – 1881) British statesman and Conservative politician

Divarication: action, process or fact of spreading apart

Dryden, John: (1631 – 1700) English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright; appointed England’s first Poet Laureate in 1668

Dominic of Osma (Dominic of Caleruege, or Domingo Felix de Guzman), (1170 – 1221) Castillian Catholic priest founder of the Dominican Order, dubbed patron Saint of Astronomers

Domitianus: (51 – 96 A.D.) last member of the Roman Flavian dynasty

Du Prel, Baron Karl (Karl Ludwig August Friedrich Maximilian Alfred; Freiherr von Prel): (1839 -1899) German philosopher and writer on mysticism and the occult

Dublin Penny Magazine: weekly newspaper originating from Dublin, Ireland, between 1832 and 1836

Dublin University Magazine: independent literary cultural and political magazine published in Dublin from 1833 to 1882

Duncan, James: (1810 – 1866) Scottish surgeon and chemist

Dunglison, Robert (Robley): (1798 – 1869) English-American physician, medical educator; author of  Human Physiology, Vol. I (1850)

Dunn, Robert: (1799 – 1877) British surgeon; author of An Essay on Physiological Psychology (1858)

Duns, John (“Duns Scotus”):(d. 1308) Scottish Catholic priest and Franciscan friar, professor, philosopher and theologian

Durham, Arthur E.: (1834 – 1895) English surgeon; author of The Physiology of Sleep (1850)

Dyspnea: difficult or labored breathing


Ecelinus (Ezelin, or Ezzelino da Romano;): head of the Ghibellines in Italy in the time of Emperor Frederick II, podesta (or chief magistrate) of Verona in 1226

Edward I: (1239 – 1307) aka “Longshanks” and “Hammer of the Scots” (reigned as of England from 1272 to 1307)

Eglinus, Raphael: (1559 – 1622) theosophist, alchemist and professor at Zurich

Egoism: an ethical theory that treats self-interest as the foundation of morality

Ellis, Havelock: (1859 – 1939) English physician and eugenicist, writer, progressive intellectual and social reformer who studied human sexuality; author of The World of Dreams (1911)

Ennius, Quintus:  (239 – c.169 B.C.) writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic

Ennodius, Magnus Felix: (c.473 – 521 A.D.), Bishop of Pavia in 514 A.D., Latin rhetorician and poet

Emulous: motivated by a spirit of rivalry; seeking to imitate or emulate

Epaminondas: (c.410/18 – 362 B.C.) military tactician of Sparta and Theban statesman

Epictetus: (c.50 – c.135 A.D.) Greek Stoic philosopher

Epicurus: (341 – 270 B.C.) ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded Epicureanism

Epiphanius of Salamis: (c.310 – 403 A.D.) Bishop of Cyrus in the 4th century

Epiphanes (Antiochus IV Epiphanes): (c.215 – 164 B.C)

Esquirol, Jean-Étienne Dominique: (1772 – 1840) French psychiatrist

Estius, Gulielmus: (1542 – 1613) Theologian and hagiographer of Holland

Estocado: the thrust of the matador’s sword designed to kill the bull in a bullfight

Euler, Leonhard: (1707 – 1783) Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer; founded the study of graph theory and topology; author of Letters to a German Princess on Subjects in Physics and Philosophy (c.1760)

Euripides: (c.480 – c.406 B.C.) was a tragedian of classical Athens; author of Hecuba (424 B.C.) and Iphigenia in Taurus (c.412 B.C.)

Eusebius: (c.260/265 – 339/340 A.D.) historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist; author of Ecclesiastical History (4th century); else, Biblical translator, secretary to Pope Damasus I and monastic leader “Saint Jerome” (c.347 – 420 A.D.), aka Eusebius Hieronymus or Sphronius

Eustathius of Thessalonica: (c.1115 – 1196) Byzantine Greek scholar and Archbishop

Ex unguibus:by the claw”

Exoculation: To blind or deprive of eyes


Fabre, Jean-Henri: (1823 – 1915) French naturalist, entomologist; author of Souvenirs Entomologiques (1879)

Faustus, Doctor: main character of The Tragical History and Death of Doctor Faustus (c.1590); Elizibethan tragedy by Christopher Marlow (1564 – 1593)

Ferrier, Sir David: (1843 – 1928) pioneering Scottish neurologist and psychologist; author of The Functions of the Brain (1876)

Ferrier, James Frederick: (1806 – 1864) Scottish metaphysician, writer and Professor; author of Institutes of Metaphysic (1854)

Flajolet: a non-reed flute akin to the recorder and tin whistle

Flournoy, Theodore: (1854 – 1920) Swiss professor of psychology

Formey, Jean Henri Samuel: (1711 – 1797) German churchman, educator, author, and journalist; author of Melanges Philosophiques (1754)

Fosgate, Blanchard: author of Sleep Psychologically considered, with reference to Sensation and Memory (1850)

Frederic, Baron Jean Leopold Nicolas: (1769 – 1832) French naturalist and zoologist, and “founding father of paleontology”

Freud, Sigmund: (1856 – 1939) Austrian neurologist and founder of Psychoanalysis

Fregoso, Battista: (1450 – 1505) 40th Doge of the Republic of Genoa; author of De Dictis et Factis memorabilibus (c.14th century)

Froissart, Sir John (Jean): (c.1337 – c.1405) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian; author of Chronicles of England (c.14th century)

Fulgentius, Fabius Planiades: late 5th – 6th century Latin writer (contention exists concerning whether this is the same person called Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe)

Fundament: buttocks or anus


Gabdorrhachaman (son of Nasir): cited auhor of L’Onirocrite Mussulman, translated by Pierre Vattier (1623 – 1667) in 1664

Galatino, Pietro Colonna: (1460 – 1540) Franciscan friar and theologian

Galba, Lucius Livius Ocella Sulpicius: (c.3 – 69 A.D.) Roman emperor

Galen (Galen of Pergamon,Aelius Galenus, or Claudius Galenus): (129 – c.200/216 A.D) Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire; author of De Dignotione ex Insomniis Libellus (On Diagnosis from Dreams)

Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de’Galilei: (1564 – 1642) astronomer, physicist and engineer

Gassendi, Pierre: (1592 – 1655) French philosopher, scientific chronicler, observer, and experimentalist; scholar of ancient texts and debates

Galton, Sir Francis: (1882 – 1911) anthropologist, sociologist and psychologist, notable for initiating the science of meteorology

Gall, Franz Josef: (1758 – 1828) German neuroanatomist, physiologist and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain; claimed to be the founder of phrenology

Galliardise: extreme gaiety; merriment

Gautier, Pierre Jules Theophile: (1811 – 1872) French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist and art/literature critic

Gennadius II: (c. 1400 – 1473), Byzantine philosopher and theologian; Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (1454 to 1464); strong advocate for Aristotelian philosophy in the Eastern Church

Gentleman’s Magazine: monthly periodical founded in London, England, by Edward Cave in January 1731, published through 1922

Geoffrey of Monmouth: (1095 – c.1155) British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur; author of History of the Kings of Britain, or Historia regum Britanniae (1136)

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales): (1146 – c.1223) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian; author of The Topography of Ireland (1185), and The History of the Norman Conquest of Ireland (1189)

Gessner, Conrad: (1516 – 1565) Swiss physician, naturalist, biographer and philologist

Glossographer: a writer of commentaries or glossaries

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von: (1749 – 1832) German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic and amateur artist

Gonzalo: author of The Divine Dreamer (1641)

Gooch, Robert: (1784 – 1830) English physician

Goodwin, Philip: preacher of the gospel at Watford in Hartfordshire; author of The Mystery of Dreams Historically Discoursed (1658)

Gray, Robert:(1762 – 1834) Bishop of Bristol; author of Theory of Dreams (1808)

Greaves, Reverend Mr.: cited author of a work titled On Dreams; though some sources mention a Mr. Joseph Greaves, no firm reference could be obtained

Greene, Robert: author ofAlphonsus King of Aragon (1599)

Greenwood, Frederick: (1830 – 1909) English journalist and editor; author of Imagination in Dreams (1894)

Gregory, James: (1753 – 1821) Scottish physician

Grindon, Leopold Hartley: (1818 – 1904) English educator and botanist; pioneer in the field of adult education; author of Life: Its Nature, Varieties and Phenomena (1856)

Guthlac of Crowland (Croyland): (674 – 714 A.D.) Christian saint from Lincolnshire in England

Guthrie, Leonard George: (1858 – 1918) senior physician and pediatrician at Paddington Green Children’s Hospital in London


[…] (Herman?) Hugo: (1588 – 1629) Jesuit priest, writer and military chaplain; dubious citation owing to obscured text; cited author of a work titled Epistles

[…] Madame de la Mothe: apparent reference (per context in this treatise) to Jeanne-Marie Bouvier de La Motte-Guyon (1648 – 1717), French mystic

Hadrian: (Publius Aelius Hadrianus; Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus): (76 – 138 A.D.); Roman Emperor from 117 – 138 A.D.

Hale, Hon. John P.: (1806 – 1873) American politician and lawyer

Hall, Bishop Joseph: (1574 – 1656) English bishop, satirist, moralist, devotional writer, and a high-profile controversialist; auhor of Shaking of the Olive-tree (1660)

Haller, Albrecht von: (1708 – 1777) Swiss anatomist, physiologist and naturalist; often called “the father of modern physiology”

Hamilton, Sir William: (1788 – 1856) Scottish metaphysician

Hammond, William Alexander:(1828 – 1900), American military physician and neurologist

Hannibal of Carthage: (247 – 183 B.C.)  general and statesman who commanded Carthage’s main forces against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War

Harpsfield, Nicholas: (1519 – 1575) author of The Life and Death of Sir Thomas More (1557)

Hartley, David: (1705 – 1757) English philosopher; founder of the Associationist school of psychology; author of Observations on Man (1749)

Harvey, William: (1578 – 1657) English physician

Hayband: rope of twisted hay

Haydn, Joseph: (1732 – 1809) Austrian composer of the Classical period

Hauser, Kaspar (Casper): (c.1812 – 1833), a German youth who claimed to have grown up in the total isolation of a darkened cell; these claims, and his subsequent death by stabbing, sparked much debate and controversy

Haven, Joseph: (1816 – 1874) professor, philosopher and author of Mental Philosophy; Induding the Intellect, Sensibilities, and Will (1857)

Heliodorus of Emesa (Heliodorus Emesenus): author of the ancient Greek novel called the Aethiopica (or Theagenes), which has been dated to the 220s or 370s A.D.

Hemiplegia: paralysis of one side of the body

Henschen, Salomon Eberhard: (1847-1930) Swedish doctor, professor and neurologist

Herbert, Edward: (1583 – 1648): 1st Baron of Cherbury, Anglo-Welsh soldier, diplomat, poet and religious philosopher

Hierom: Phoenician King of Tyre who reigned from approx 980 – 947 B.C.

Helmont, Joannes (Jan) Baptist van: (1580 – 1644) chemist, physiologist, and physician; author of Ortus Medicine; id est, Initis Physicae Inaudita, English version published as Oriatrike or Physick Refined in 1662

Henry of Huntingdon: (c.1088 – c.1157)  12th-century English historian and the author of History of the English People, or Historia Anglorum (c.1129)

Heraclitus of Ephesus: (535 – c.475 B.C.) ancient Greek, pre-Socratic, Ionian philosopher

Herodotus: (c. 484 – c. 425 B.C.) ancient Greek writer, geographer and historian; author of Histories (430 B.C.)

Herophilus: (335 – 280 B.C.) Greek physician deemed to be among the earliest anatomists

Herrick, Robert: (1591 – 1674) 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric; best known for a book of poetry entitled Hesperides (1648)

Hesiod: ancient Greek poet generally thought to have been active between 750 and 650 B.C., around the same time as Homer; author of Theogony (c.700 B.C.) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods

Hesychius of Alexandria: Greek grammarian of the 5th or 6th century A.D. who compiled the richest lexicon of unusual and obscure Greek words

Hewson, William: (1739 – 74) called “the father of haematology,” who advanced the knowledge of red and white blood cells, and of the lymphatic system

Hieronymus of Rhodes: (c. 290 – 230 B.C.) Peripatetic philosopher

Hilprecht, Hermann Volrath: (1859 – 1925) German-American Assyriologist and archaeologist

Hinton, James: (1822 – 1875) was an English surgeon and author of Man and his Dwelling Place (1859)

Hippocrates of Kos: (c.460 – 370 B.C.) Greek physician in the Age of Pericles, also called the “Father of Medicine” and to which is attributed the Hippocratic Oath: Primum Non Nocere (“First, Do No Harm”)

Hispalensis, Isadorus: (c.560 – 636 A.D.) Archbishop of Seville for over three decades, and to whom is accredited the invention of such punctuation marks as the period, the comma and the colon

Hobbes, Thomas:  (1588 – 1679) philosopher, physicist, historian, translator, mathematician and author of Leviathan (1651)

Hoffmann, Frederick: (1660 – 1742) German physician and chemist; among the most widely read medical authors of the eighteenth century; author of Exercitatio de optima Philosophandi Ratione (1741)

Hoffmann, Heinrich: (1809 – 1894) German psychiatrist and writer

Hogg, James:  (1770 – 1835) Scottish poet, novelist and essayist; author of The Shepherd’s Calendar (1829)

Holinshed, Raphael:  (c.1525 – 1582) English chronicler, most famous for his work on Chronicles of England, Ireland, and Scotland or Holinshed’s Chronicles (1577)

Holland, Sir Henry: (1788 – 1873), was a British physician and travel writer; author of Chapters on Mental Physiology; Medical Notes and Reflections (1852)

Homer: ancient Greek poet best known for two epic works, the Iliad and Odyssey (c.8th century B.C.)

Hophman, Melchior: Anabaptist “prophet” of northern Germany and the Netherlands (c.1495 – 1543)

Hopkins, Tighe: author ofThe Dungeons of Old Paris (1897)

Horae subsecivae: “short hours”

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus): (65 – 8 BC) roman lyric poet

Hosius of Corduba: (c.256 – 359)

Howden, Roger de: 12th-century English chronicler and diplomat; author of The Annals; Comprising the History of England and Europe, 730 to 1201 A.D. (1853)

Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von: (1769 – 1859) German polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer and proponent of science

Hunter, John: (1728 – 1793) Scottish surgeon, and one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day; an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine

Hunter, William (Jr.): (1774 – 1849) American politician and diplomat

Hyperemia: an excess of blood in the vessels supplying an organ or other part of the body

Hypermnesia: the opposite of Amnesia; “exalted memory”


Iamblicus: (c.245 – 325 A.D.) Syrian neoplatonist of Arab origin

Inamorato: “male lover”

Inest sua gratia parvis: “However, it is small grace”

Ingenii lascivientis flosculi: “flowers of talent”

Ingulphus: (d. 1109) Benedictine abbot of Croyland; author of theHistory of the Abbey of Croyland or the Croyland Chronicle (c.15th century)

Inter alia: “among others”

Ipsissima verba: “the precise words”

Italicus, Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius: (c. 26 – 101 A.D.) Roman consul, orator and epic poet in the Silver Age of Latin literature


James, William: (1842 – 1910) American philosopher, historian and psychologist

Janet, Pierre: (1859 – 1947) pioneering French psychologist, physician, philosopher and psychotherapist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory

Jastrow, Joseph: (1863 – 1944) Polish-born American psychologist noted for inventions in experimental psychology, design of experiments, psychophysics, and work in the phenomena of optical illusions; author of The Subconscious (1905)

Jebusites: a Canaanite tribe that inhabited Jerusalem, then called Jebus

Jenner, Edward: (1749 – 1823) British physician and scientist; pioneer in the field of vaccines, and developer of the smallpox vaccine (world’s first vaccine)

Jocelyn, Lord: (1816 – 1854) British politician, soldier and author of Six Months with the Chinese Expedition (1841)

Johnson, Dr. Samuel: (1709 – 1784) English writer, poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer

Jonson, Ben: (c.1572 – 1637) English playwright and poet

Josephus, Flavius (Yosef ben Matityahu): (37 – c. 100) Romano-Jewish historian who was born in Jerusalem; author of Antiquities of the Jews (c.93 A.D.), and Wars of the Jews (also c.1st century)

Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology: published from 1848 to 1860; followed by a related journal titled Medical Critic and Psychological Journal for the next three years, and a second series in 1875, which ran until 1883

Judaeus, Philo: (c.50 B.C. – c.15 B.C.) Jewish philosopher and author of On Dreams being sent by God

Junius the Elder (Franciscus Junius): (1545 – 1602) Protestant reformer, bible translator and theologian of France, writer of De Vera Theologia (“The True Theology”)

Jung, Carl Gustav: (1875 – 1961) Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst

Jupiter Hammon: once temple of Ba’al Hammon (Amun) in Carthage which became known as Jupiter (Zeus/Saturn) Hammon under Roman rule, connected to the festival of Saturnalia; noted as a “fertility god” by Philo


Kalendes (Calendes): the first day of the month in the Roman calendar; sometimes calculated by counting the remaining days left in a month and adding two; morphologically marked as the plural of kalende (though often used interchangeably)

Kant, Immanuel: (1724 – 1804) German philosopher of the Enlightenment

Keats, John: (1795 – 1821) English poet; writer of Endymion (1818)

Keller, Helen Adams: (1880 – 1968) famously blind and deaf American author, disability advocate, political activist and lecturer

Kempis, Thomas a (Thomas von Kempen): (c.1380 – 1471), author of The Imitation of Christ (c.1420)

Ken, Bishop Thomas: (1637 – 1711) English cleric; author of  Hymns, Anodynes, and Hymnotheo, or the Penitent (1721)

Kepler, Johannes: (1571 – 1630) German astronomer, natural philosopher and writer on music

Kipling, Rudyard: (1865 – 1936) writer; author of many works, including Brushwood Boy (1895)

Königsberg, Johannes Müller von (1436 – 1476)

Kotzebue, August von: (1761 – 1819), German playwright widely influential in popularizing poetic drama, melodramatic sensationalism and sentimental philosophizing


Lactantius (Lucius Caecilius Firmianus):  (c. 250 – 325) early Christian author who became an advisor to Roman emperor, Constantine I

Laennec, Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe: (1781 – 1826) French physician; inventor of the stethoscope

Lane, Edward William: (1801 – 1876) British orientalist and lexicographer; translator of The Thousand and One Arabian Nights (1859)

Laud, William: (1573 – 1645) clergyman in the Church of England, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Charles I in 1633

Laurens, André du: (1558 – 1609)

Lavallette, Count Antoine Marie Chamans comte de: (1769 – 1830) French politician and general

Lavater, Johann Caspar: (1741 – 1801) Swiss poet, writer, philosopher, physiognomist and theologian; author of Glimpses into Eternity (date unknown)

Lay, Wilfrid: (1872 – c.1955) author of Man’s Unconscious Conflict (1917)

Lees: sediment of the wine barrel

Legerdemain: skillful use of the hands in conjuring tricks

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von: (1646 – 1716) prominent German polymath, logician, mathematician and natural philosopher of the Enlightenment

Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft: (1830) by Sir Walter Scott (1771 – 1832), Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright, and historian

Linnaeus, Carl: (1707 – 1778) Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalized  binomial nomenclature (the modern system of naming organisms); known as the “father of modern taxonomy”

Livius, Titus: (c.64 B.C. – 17 A.D.) Roman historian

Locke, John: (1632 – 1704) English philosopher and physician, influential of Enlightenment thinker and “Father of Liberalism;” author of Essay on the Human Understanding (1689, 1695)

Lodge, Sir Oliver Joseph: (1851 – 1940) British physicist and writer involved in the development the radio, and notable for research in psychical research and spiritualism; author of Raymond or Life and Death (1917)

London Magazine: publication of arts, literature and miscellaney; first run from 1732 to 1785, and second run 1820 to 1829; famously printed De’Quincey’s Confessions of an Opium Eater in a two-part series before it was released as a book

Lucian (of Samasota): (c.125 – 180) Ancient Greek satirist, rhetorician and pamphleteer, best known for a tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and the paranormal

Lucian of Antioch (Saint Lucian): (c.240 – 312 A.D.) theologian and martyr

Lucretius (Titus Lucretius Carus):  (c. 99 – 55 BC) a Roman poet and philosopher whose only known work is the Epicurean philosophical poem De Rerum Natura (c.1st century B.C.)

Lucubration: archaic term for “meditation” or a piece of writing, typically pedantic or over-elaborate

Lumbard: a banker or money-lender (also spelled “Lombard,” from the Latin langobardus)

Luna, Juan de: (1575 – 1645) teacher and author of the Life of Lazarillo de Tormes (c.1550)

Luther, Martin: (1483 – 1564) Protestant reformist

Lycurgus of Sparta: (820 B.C.), legendary law-giver who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi

Lyman, Henry M.: (1835 – 1904), professor of physiology and nervous system diseases; author of Insomnia; and other Disorders of Sleep (1885)

Lyttelton, George William (4th Baron Lyttelton and Westcote): (1817 – 1876), English aristocrat, chairman of the Canterbury Association


Maass, Johann Gebhard Ehrenreich: (1766 – 1823) German psychologist and professor of philosophy

Mackay, Charles: (1814 – 1889) Scottish poet, journalist, author, anthologist, novelist and songwriter; author of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (1841)

Maeterlinck, Maurice: (1862 – 1949) author of The Unknown Guest (1914)

Macnish, Robert: (1802 – 1837) Scottish surgeon, physician, philosopher and writer; author of Philosophy of Sleep (1830)

Macrobius (Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius):  (c.400 A.D.) Roman provincial who lived during during Late Antiquity; author of Commentary on “Somnium Scipionis” (date unknown)

Magendie, Francois:(1783 – 1855) French physiologist

Maggio, Giuniano (Jinianus Maius): a writer active around 1475, to the name of which 56 works and 140 publications are attributed

Maine de Biran (Francois-Pierre-Gontier de Biran): (1766 – 1824) French philosopher

Malebranche, Nicolas: (1638 – 1715) French Cartesian philosopher

Mandeville, Sir John: the titled author of The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a travel memoir which first circulated between 1357 and 1371

Manichaeism: major Persian religion of the 3rd century A.D.

March, Juan Luis Vives: (1493 – 1540), Spanish scholar and Renaissance humanist whose beliefs on the soul, insight into early medical practice, and perspective on emotions, memory and learning, earned him the title of the “father” of modern psychology”

Marcionism: a dualist belief system originating in Rome from the teachings of Marcion of Sinope, c.144 A.D.

Margaret of Navarre: (c.1135 – 1183) queen consort of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I (1154–1166), and the regent during the minority of her son, William II

Marmontel, Jean-François: (1723 – 1799) French historian and writer; member of the Encyclopédistes movement

Marius, Gaius: (c.157 – 86 B.C.) Roman general and statesman

Martyr, Peter (Pietro Martire Vermigli): (1499 – 1562) was an Italian-born Calvinist theologian; author of Original Sin: Common Places, Vol. 1 (date unknown)

Matthew Paris (Matthaeus Parisiensis): (c.1200 – 1259) English Benedictine monk, chronicler, artist in illuminated manuscripts, and cartographer; author of the Chronica Majora and Historia Anglorum (dates unkown)

Matthew of Westminster: here listed by the author of this work, but now believed to be Mathew of Paris, listed above, or anoher person appropriating his name for publication; author of Flowers of History or Flores Historiarum (1570)

Maudsley, Henry: (1835 – 1918) pioneering English psychiatrist

Maury, Louis Ferdinand Alfred: (1817 – 1892) French scholar and physician, known for his ideas about the interpretation of dreams and the effect of external stimuli which predated those of Sigmund Freud, and is thus referenced by Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)

Mendelssohn, Moses: (1729 – 1786), German-Jewish philosopher

Megara (City of): historic town and municipality in Attica, Greece, in the Isthmus of Corinth

Melanchthon (ne Schwartzerdt), Philip: (1597 – 1560) Lutheran reformer

Mercury Galant (Mercure de France): a French gazette and literary magazine published with interruption from 1672 through 1724

Medical Critic and Psychological Journal: journal on mental health published from 1861 through 1863, to resume roughly ten years later as The Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology

Millingen, John Gideon: (1782 – 1862)  British army surgeon and author of Curiosities of Medical Experience (1839)

Milte (Mylte): the spleen; derived from the Dutch milte for “fish sperm”

Milton, John: (1608 – 1674) English poet and intellectual; writer of Sonnet on his Deceased Wife (1658) ; most famous for Paradise Lost (1667)

Miraldus: though this name appears in many documents, some suggest it a pseudonmym for an Arab alchemist named Jaˉbir, and others reference it as a pseudonym used by Greek philosopher Parmenides

Mirror of Literature: sources reference a periodical entitled The Mirrir of Literature, Amusement and Instruction, published from 1822 to 1847 by John Limbird (c.1796 – 1833), English stationer and bookseller

Moivre, Abraham de: (1667 – 1754) French mathematician who pioneered the development of analytic geometry and theory of probability

Moffat, Robert: (1795 – 1883) Scottish Congregationalist missionary to Africa; author of Missionary Labors and Scenes in Southern Africa (1842)

Mole: masonry and large stones or earth laid in the sea as a pier or breakwater

Mollerus, Albinus: (1541 – 1618) German theologian

Monro, Henry: author of Remarks on Insanity: Its Nature and Treatment (1850)

Montaigne, Michel de: (1533 – 1592) French philosopher

Moreau, M.:  no firm source could be located for this author of On the Identity of Dreaming with Insanity, though it is referenced in an 1856 issue of the Journal of Psychological Medicine

Mori, Nicolas: (1796 – 1839) Anglo-Italian violinist, music publisher and conductor

Morpheus: Greek god of sleep

Muller, Johannes Peter: (1801 – 1858) was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist; author of Elements of Physiology (1837)

Muntzer, Thomas: (c.1489 – 1552) theologian

Musculus (ne Mauslein), Wolfgang: (1497 – 1563) reformist theologian

Mutatis mutandis: “making necessary alterations while not affecting the main point at issue” (when comparing two or more cases or situations)

Myers, Frederic William Henry: (1843 – 1901) British poet, philologist and founder of the Society for Psychical Research, and who contributed ideas about the “subliminal self” (though these have not been broadly adopted in the scientific community); author of Phantasms of the Living, Vol. II (1886)


Nares: nostrils; more broadly, the “nasal passage” (or sinuses)

Nash, Treadway Russel: (1724 – 1811) English clergyman and historian of Worcestershire

Neot (Saint Neot): 9th century monk admired for his religious dedication; founded a monastery in Cornwall, England by order of the Pope

Neurasthenia: a poorly-defined condition characterized by lassitude, fatigue, headache and irritability; associated chiefly with emotional disturbance

Nescience: lack of knowledge

Newton, Bishop Thomas: (1704 – 1782) English cleric, biblical scholar and author of Dissertations on the prophecies (c.1766)

Newton, John: (1725 – 1807) was an English Anglican cleric; author of Olney Hymns (1779)

Nicholis, Henry: 16th century founder of  Familia Cartatis, a mystic religious sect

Nicostratus: a Greek playwright of Middle Comedy, said to be the youngest son of Aristophanes

Notes and Queries: likely reference to the ongoing quarterly scholarly journal published by Oxford University Press since 1849


Oecumenius: Bishop of Trikka in Thessaly (c.990 A.D.) and reputed to be the author of several Biblical commentaries, though some recent scholars have redacted select works and attributed them to other authors

Obsequies: ceremony or rite

Ordericus Vitalis: (1075 – c.1142) English chronicler and Benedictine monk who wrote one of the great contemporary chronicles of 11th- and 12th-century Normandy and Anglo-Norman England, the Ecclesiastical History (Historia Ecclesiastica), in multiple volumes throughout his life

Ordure: feces; excrement

Orléans (Taking of): (1562) Condé’s conquest here marked the beginning of the Wars of Religion among French Catholics

Oroetus (Oroetes): Persian Satrap of Lydia from c.530 – 520 B.C.

Osculation: to kiss or touch with lips

Osier, Sir William: (1849 – 1919) Canadian physician; co-founder of Johns Hopkins Hospital

Ovid (Pūblius Ovidius): (43 B.C. – 17/18 A.D.) Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus; contemporary of his elders Virgil and Horace; author of Metamorphoses (8 A.D.)


Paganini, Niccolo: (1782 – 1840) Italian virtuoso violinist and composer

Palladino, Eusapia: (1854 – 1918)Italian Spiritualist and psychic medium

Pallas, Peter Simon: (1741 – 1811) Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767 – 1810)

Panyassis of Halicarnassus (Panyasis): 5th century B.C. Greek epic poet from the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey)

Penury: extreme proverty

Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim): (d.1541)  Swiss physician, alchemist, lay theologist and philosopher of the German Renaissance

Paraeus, David: (1548 – 1622) German theologian

Parkhurst, John: (1728 – 1797) English academic, clergyman and biblical lexicographer

Paralysis agitans: now called Parkinson’s disease; progressive deterioration of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity and slow, imprecise movements

Parthey, Gustav: auhor of On the Mysteries (de Misteriis), 1857

Pascal, Blaise: (1623 – 1662) French mathematician, physicist, inventor, philosopher, writer and Catholic theologian

Patefaction: the act of opening, disclosing or manifesting

Pater, Walter Horatio: (1839 – 1894) English essayist, critic and writer

Pausanias: (c.110 - 180 A.D.) Greek traveler and geographer of the second century who lived in the time of the Roman Emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

Pedagogy: the method and practice of teaching

Peiresc, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de: (1580 – 1637) French astronomer, antiquary and savant

Pepys, Samuel: (1633 – 1703) English author and politician; famous for his Diary and Correspondence

Pericles: (495 – 429 B.C.) Greek statesman and general of Athens

Peripatetic: Philosophers of the Aristotelian School; a peripatetic being “a person who travels from one place to another”

Perfidious(ness): deliberate faithless treachery

Phalaris: Tyrant of Akragas in Sicily, from approximately 570 to 554 B.C.

Philosophical Transactions: scientific journal of the Royal Society of London, first published in 1665

Philostratus, Lucius Flavius (the Athenian): (c.170 – 250 A.D.) Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period

Philpot, John: (1516 – 1555) Archdeacon of Winchester, as referenced in the Book of Mar­tyrs (also known as Actes and Monuments, written by John Foxe in 1563)

Phimosis: a congenital narrowing of the foreskin that prevents retraction

Pia mater: the delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord

Pindar: (518 – 438 B.C.) Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes

Piscator, Johannes: (1546 – 1625) German Reformed theologian, writer and Bible translator

Pismires: archaic term for ants

Plato: (c.428 – c.347 B.C.) Athenian philosopher of Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Academy, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world; author of The Republic (c.375 B.C.)

Plautus, Titus Maccius: (c.254 – 184 B.C.) Roman playwright of the Old Latin period

Pleurisy: inflammation of the pleurae, which impairs their lubricating function and causes pain when breathing; caused by pneumonia and other diseases of the chest or abdomen

Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus): (c.23  – 79 A.D.) Roman author, a naturalist, natural philosopher, naval and army commander; wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia (Natural History, c.77 A.D.), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias

Pliny the Younger (Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus): (61 – c.113) lawyer, writer, and magistrate of Ancient Rome; author of Epistulae (or, Letters) in the 1st century

Plutarch of Chaeronae: (46 – c.119 A.D.)Greek Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, biographer, essayist, and priest; author of Parallel Lives, Morals (c.100 A.D.), Essays on Progress, Initio Libelli de Audiendis Poetis

Poe, Edgar Allan: (1809 – 1849), American writer, poet, editor and literary critic

Polanus, Amandus: (1561 – 1610) German theologian of reformed orthodoxy

Polidori, John William: (1795 – 1821) English writer and physician; his most successful work was the short story The Vampyre (1819)

Poltrot, Jean de: Huguenot who assasinated the Duke of Guise at the Siege of Orléans in 1563, a critical turning point in the French Wars of Religion

Polycarpus (Polycarp): (69 – 155 A.D.) Christian bishop of Smyrna, also called, who was martyred by burning at the stake and then stabbed to death when the fire failed to consume him

Polycrates: Tyrant of Samos from c.540 – 522 B.C.

Porphyry: (c.234 – c.305 A.D.) PhoenicianNeoplatonic philosopher

Porta, Giambattista della: (1535 – 1615) Italian scholar, polymath and playwright of Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation

Poseidonius: (c.135 – c.51 B.C.) Greek politician, astronomer, astrologer,geographer, historian, mathematician

Pratensis, Jason: author of what some consider the first book of neurology, De Cerebi Morbis (1549)

Priestley, Joseph: (1733 – 1804) English chemist, natural philosopher, separatist theologian, grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist

Primpara: a woman who is giving birth for the first time

Prince, Morton: author of The Dissociation of a Personality (1906) and The Unconscious (1914)

Pro re nata: “in the circumstances” or “as circumstances arise”

Procopius of Ceasarea: (c.500 – 566 A.D.) prominent late antique Byzantine scholar

Procula, Claudia: named wife of Pontius Pilate

Prometheus: Greek god and Titan, “supreme trickster” who gave mankind the gift of fire

Protagoras: (c.490 – c.420 B.C.) Greek philosopher and rhetorical theorist

Ptolomy, Claudius: (c.100 – 170 A.D.) mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, geographer and astrologer

Publican: a Jewish tax collector during Roman times

Pyrrho of Elis: (c.360 - 270 B.C.) Greek philosopher of Classical Antiquity

Pythagoras of Samos: (c.570 – 495) ancient Ionian Greek philosopher, and political/religious teacher, mathematician (Pythagorean Theorem); eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism


Quincy, Thomas Penson de: (1785 – 1859) English writer, essayist, and literary critic; best known for his Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821)

Quintilianus, Marcus Fabius: (c.35 – c.100 A.D.) Roman educator and rhetoritician


Rabelais, Francis (Francois): (c.1490 – 1553) French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar; author of Life of Gargantus and of Pantagruel, published in five books in the 16th century

Raillery: good-humored teasing

Ramsay, Andrew Michael: (1686 – 1743) Scottish-born writer who lived most of his adult life in France

Raphael: a likely nom de plum under which a purported “discovered” tome, The Royal Book of Dreams (1830), was published

Ratiocination: process of exact thinking; reasoning

Reid, John: (1776 – 1822) English physician

Reid, Thomas: (1710 – 1796) religiously trained Scottish philosopher; writer of a Letter to Rev. William Gregory (date unknown), as well as author of Inquiry into the Human Mind (1764), and Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785)

Reines: an archaic term literally meaning “a hereditary queen or woman who rules a country,” often used as a metaphor (or indicator) for “that which exercises authority over men,” but also as the explicit commands and boundaries of God’s Word found in the Bible, or “those things which we should (and must) obey”

Rechabites: part of the nomadic group known as Kenites who accompanied the Israelites into the Holy Land and dwelt among them; this group being forbidden to drink wine or to dwell in cities, but always to live a nomadic life

Richter, Johann Paul Friedrich: (1763 – 1825) German Romantic writer; auhor of Dream upon the Universe (date unknown)

Rhodiginus, Caelius: (1469 – 1525) Venetian writer, and professor in Greek and Latin, and teacher of Julius Ceasar Scalinger; author of Antiquarum Lectionum, published in sixteen books c.1516

Richardson, Sir Benjamin Ward: (1828 – 1896), British physician, anesthetist, physiologist, sanitarian and writer on medical history

Rodomontados: boastful talk or behavior, from Orlando Innamorato (1483 to 1495)

Rogers, Samuel: (1763 – 1855) author of The Pleasures of Memory, Part II (1792)

Rolle, Richard: (1300 – 1349) English hermit, mystic, Bible translator and religious writer; author of The Form of Perfect Living (1348)

Rosetti Christina, Georgina: (1830 – 1894) English writer of romantic, devotional and children’s poems

Roterodamus, Desiderius Erasmus: (1469 – 1536) Dutch philosopher and Christian scholar

Rothmann, Bernhard: (c.1495 – 1535) anabaptist

Rush, Benjamin: (1746 – 1813) signer of the Declaration of Independence and civic leader in Philadelphia; physician, politician, social reformer, humanitarian, and educator; founder of Dickinson College, Surgeon General of the Continental Army; professor of chemistry, medical theory and clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania


Sabacon: Ethopian king who invaded Egypt during the reign of the blind king Anysis (per Herodotus)

Sacerdotal: relating to or denoting a doctrine which ascribes sacrificial functions and spiritual or supernatural powers to ordained priests

Salvianus: Christian writer of the 5th century in Roman Gaul

Sedulity: diligence

Seneca the Younger (Lucius Annaeus Seneca): (c. 65 – 4 B.C.)

Sensorium commune: a hypothetical location in the brain formerly held to be the seat of sensation in humans and nonhuman animals, and the site for the operations of the sensus communis (also called the sensorium)

Sephromancy: divination by ciphers (ie; charts/tables); see The Royal Dream Book

Septuagint: Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), including the Apocrypha, made for Greek-speaking Jews in Egypt and adopted by the early Christian Churches in the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.

Serried: rows of things (or people) standing close together

Scaliger, Joseph Justus: (1540 – 1609) French Calvinist leader and scholar

Scaliger, Julius Caesar: (1484 – 1558) Italian scholar, physician and Aristotelian; author of  Exotericarum Exercitationum (1557)

Schadenfreude: pleasure derived from another’s misfortune

Schiller, Johann Christopher von: (1759 – 1805) German playwright, poet, and philosopher; writer of Wallenstein’s CampPiccolomini and Death of Wallenstein, forming the Wallenstein trilogy of plays completed in 1799

Scholz, Heinrich: (1884 – 1956), German logician, philosopher and Protestant theologian

Scots Magazine: journal of articles on subjects of Scottish interest; published since 1793; claims to be the oldest magazine still in circulation

Scott, Sir Walter: (1771 – 1832) Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright, and historian; author of Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft (1830)

Shakespeare, William: (1564 – 1616)English playwright, poet, and actor; writer of the tragedy Romeo and Juliet (1597)

Shelley, Percy Bysshe (1792 – 1822) Romantic poet; author of Mont Blanc: Lines Written in the Vale of Chamouni (1816)

Shepherd of Hermas (Pastor Hermae): 2nd century Christian literary work (apocrypha)

Sheppard, John:  (1785 – 1879) English religious writer; author of On Dreams in the Mental and Moral Aspects (1847)

Sibil: a woman who prophesied under a state of frenzy, such as the Oracle at Delphi, as noted in the works of Plato, Aristotle, and Aristophanes, and numbered 10 by Lactantius in the Divinarum Institutionum

Sibylline Verses (Libri Sibyllini): a collection of oracular utterances, set out on Greek hexameters, consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Roman Republic and Empire

Sidis, Boris :(1867-1923) Ukrainian-American psychologist, physician, psychiatrist and philosopher of education

Sifat-i-Sirozah: a text from an unknown author, republished c.1800, purporting to be a translation of a much older text of Middle-Eastern origin listing “Auspicious and Inauspicious days”

Sigourney, Lydia: (1791 – 1865) American poet, author, and publisher; writer of Pocahontas, and other Poems (1841)

Simonides of Ceos: (b.556 BC) Greek lyric poet

Smellie, William: (1740 – 1795) Scottish naturalist, antiquary, and printer who edited the first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica; joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; author of The Philosophy of Natural History (1790)

Smerdis (Bardiya): (.d 522 B.C.) a son of Cyrus the Great (c.600 – 530 B.C.) and the younger brother of Cambyses II (r.550 – 530 B.C.), both Persian kings; Smerdis was toppled by Darius the Great, a full or half-brother of Cambyses II

Smith, William Pitt: (1760 – 1796) U.S. physician, educator and theological writer; began his career serving in the General Hospital Department of the Continental Army during the American Revolution; later, Professor of Materia Medica at Columbia College in 1792

Socrates: (c.470 – 399 B.C.) Greek philosopher from Athens; credited as a the founder of Western philosophy and the first moral philosopher of the Western ethical tradition; authored no texts and known mainly through posthumous accounts of classical writers, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon

Sophocles: (c.497 – 406 B.C.) one of three ancient Greek tragedians, with Aeschylus and Euripides; writer of Electra (c.420 B.C.)

Southcott, Joanna: (1750 – 1814) self-described religious prophetess from Devon, England, whose Letters and Communications were reprinted in other works in 1815 and 1820

Sozomen, Salamanes Hermias: (c.400 – c.450 A.D.) Roman lawyer and historian of the Christian Church; author of Ecclesiastical History

Spectator: insufficient context to fully disambiguate, though some references cite a weekly British magazine of politics, culture and current affairs; in publication since 1828

Spencer, Herbert: (1820 – 1903) developed and applied evolutionary theory to philosophy, psychology and the study of society

Spenser, Edmund: (c.1552 – 1599) writer of Ministry of Angels

Spurzheim, Johann Gaspar: (1776 – 1832) German physician who became one of the chief proponents of phrenology, which was developed c.1800 by Franz Joseph Gall (1758 – 1828); author of Outlines of the Physiognomical System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim (1815)

Squire, Henry: Archdeacon of Barnstaple from 1554 to 1582; author of the Case of Henry Axford (reprinted by The Royal Society; Vol. 45, Issue 486, 1748)

Starbuck, Edwin Diller: (1866 – 1947) American educational psychologist; study on religious conversion at death published in 1899

Stertorous breathing: “noisy and labored”

Stevenson, Robert Louis: (1850 – 1894) writer; author of many works, including A Chapter on Dreams (1888)

Steward, Alexander Patrick: (1813 – 1883)

Stewart, Dugald: (1753 – 1828) Scottish philosopher and mathematician; author of The Collected Works Of Dugald Stewart, published in eleven volumes from 1854 through 1860

Stews, the: bathhouse of a brothel; estuves (French), from “stove” (hot bath)

Stockem, Bernhard Knipperdolling van: (c.1495 – 1536)

Strabo (Gaius Fannius Strabo): (c.63 B.C – c.24 A.D.) Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian

Succedaneous: employed as a substitute for something else

Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus): (69 – 122 A.D.) Roman historian who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Empire; author of Lives of the Twelve Ceasars (121 A.D.)

Suidas (Suda, or Souda): 10th century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world

Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix): (138 – 78 B.C.) Roman general and statesman

Sulzer, Friedrich Gabriel:  (1749 – 1830) German physician from Gotha, Thuringia, who devoted a whole academic monography in the domain of social sciences and natural history to hamsters, entitled An Approach to a Natural History of the Hamster (Versuch einer Naturgeschichte des Hamsters)

Surge Recipe: “the story of his rise”

Swedenborg, Emanuel: (1688 – 1772)Swedish pluralistic-Christian theologian, scientist, philosopher and mystic; best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758)

Swift, Dean Johnathan: (1667 – 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political, poet and Anglican cleric who became Dean of St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin,(hence his common sobriquet, “Dean Swift”); writer of a piece entitled On Dreams

Swink: archaic term for working under difficult conditions or long hours of toil

Synesius: (c.373 – c.414) Greek bishop of Ptolemais in ancient Libya


Tabes dorsalis: a loss of coordinated bodily movement as a result of syphilitic infection of the spinal cord; formerly called locomotor ataxia

Tables (game): now known as Backgammon

Taine, Hippolyte: (1828 – 1893) French critic and historian

Talbot, Honorable Charles: (1685 – 1737) British lawyer and politician; Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain from 1733 to 1737

Tartini, Giuseppe: (1692 – 1770) Italian Baroque composer

Taylor, Joseph: (1762 – 1844) author of Apparitions (1815)

Temperamentum ad pondus: literally “moderated by weight” or “mixed to an equilibrium”

Temple, Sir William: (1628 – 1699) English statesman and essayist

Tennyson, Sir Alfred (Lord Tennyson): (1809 – 1892) Poet Laureate during Queen Victoria’s reign

Tertullian: (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus): (c.155 – c.240 A.D.) author of Apologeticus and De Anima

Tetters: reddish vesicular eruptions and intense itching (e.g.; Eczema)

Themistius (Euphrades): (317 – c.388 A.D.) statesman, rhetoritician and philosopher

Themistocles: (c.524 – 459 B.C) Athenian politician and general, thought to be one of the strategists at the Battle of Marathon (490 B.C) during the first Persian invasion of Greece

Theodoret of Cyrus (Theodorus of Cyrene): (c.393 – 458/466 A.D.) influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator and Bishop of Cyrrhus from 423 to 457

Theocritus of Syracuse: (c.300 – 260 B.C.) Sicilian poet and the creator of Ancient Greek pastoral poetry

Theophrastus: (c.350 – 287 B.C.) author of Metaphysics

Theophylact of Ohrid: (1055 – 1107) Byzantine archbishop

Theopompus: (c.380 – c.315 B.C.) ancient Greek historian and rhetoritician

Thermopylae, Battle of: (c.480 B.C.) infamous Spartan stand against Persian invasion; most well-known represention in modern times being the movie 300

Theurgy: the operation or effect of a supernatural or divine agency in human affairs

Tolle-Lege:“Take-Law” (or, as reported by Augustine, a voice commanded him to “Take Up, and Read” the letters of Saint Paul)

Tow: the coarse, broken fibers of flax, hemp, etc., separated from the finer parts

Townley, Miss: unable to find reference to this named person

Traduction: action

Trencherman: one who frequently eats meals at another’s table; a hanger-on

Trepan: to perforate a person’s skull with a drill

Trithemius, Johannes Heidenberg: (1462 – 1516), German Benedictine Abbot and polymath, active in the German Renaissance as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer and occultist

Tropical: in the archaic use: “figurative” (or “as of a trope”)

Trow: to “vow” or swear an oath

Typhus mitior: “a mild case of typhus” (a disease caused by rickettsia or orientia bacteria, acquired from infected mites, fleas or lice)


Upham, Thomas Cogswell: (1799 – 1872) American philosopher, psychologist, pacifist, poet, author, and educator; author of Life and Religious Opinions of Madam de la Mothe Guyon (1846)


Valentinian I: (321 – 375 A.D.) Roman Emperor

Valerius Maximus: 1st century Latin writer, author of historical anecdotes

Vatable, Francois: (c.15th century) French humanist scholar, Hellenist and Hebraist

Vattier, Pierre: (1623 – 1670) physician of Gaston d’Orleans and King’s interpreter-secretary for the Arabic languages

Vaughan, Henry: (1621 – 1695)Welsh poet; author of They are all Gone into the World of Light (1655)

Viands: items of food

Villa Nova, Arnaldus de: (c.1230 – 1311) physician, alchemist, astronomer and religious reformer

Vinsanf, Geoffrey: (c.1200) representative of the early medieval grammarian movement; author of Itinerary of Richard I and others to the Holy Land

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro):  (70 B.C. – 19 B.C.) ancient Roman poet; author of the Aeneid (c.29 B.C.)

Virginals (instrument): keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family

Vis insita: “to graft”

Volaterans: obscure branch of Christianity in the 17th century

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio): (c.80 B.C. – 5 B.C.)


Wallenstein, Albrecht von: (1583 – 1634) Duke of Friedland (a duchy in Bohemia created in 1627 and which disappeared in 1634 with Wallenstein’s death)

Walton, Izaak: (c.1593 – 1683) English writer and author of Life of Sir Henry Wotton (1670); best known as the author of The Compleat Angler (1653)

Wanley, Nathaniel: (1634 – 1680) English clergyman and writer; known as the author of The Wonders of the Little World (1678)

Watts, Isaac: (1674 – 1748) English Christian minister hymn writer, theologian, and logician; author of Philosophical Essays on Various Subjects (1733)

Webster, Daniel:(1782 – 1852) American lawyer and statesman

Wentworth, Thomas (1st Earl of Strafford): (1593 – 1641) English statesman and major figure in events leading up to the English Civil War

Wesley, John: (1703 – 1791) English cleric, theologian and evangelist; leader of a revival movement within the Church of England known as Methodism

Weygandt, Wilhelm Christian Jakob Karl: (1870 – 1934) German psychiatrist and director of the insane asylum Straatskrankenanstalt Freidrichsberg in Hamburg, Germany

White, Edward Lucas: (1866 – 1934) American author and poet

Wilmot, John: (1647 – 1680) English poet and courtier of Charles II

Wilson, Effingham: (1785 – 1868) English publisher and book-seller of primarily economics, politics and poetry

Wilson, Dr. John: (1804 – 1875) Scottish Christian missionary, orientalist and educator in the Bombay presidency, British India; author of The Parsi Religion, as contained in the Zand-Avasta (1843)

Wotton, Sir Henry: (1568 – 1639) English author and diplomat


Xenophon: (c. 430 – 354 B.C.) was an Athenian-born military leader, philosopher, and historian; author of the Anabasis (401 B.C.) and the Cyropaedia (370 B.C.)


Young, Edward: (1683 – 1765) English poet, critic, philosopher and theologian; best remembered as the author of Night Thoughts on Life, Death, and Immortality (1742)

Young, Thomas: (1773 – 1829) British polymath; notable contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics and physiology


Zahed, Éliphas Lévi (Alphonse Louis Constant): (1810 – 1875) French esotericist, poet and author of more than twenty books about magic, Kabbalah, alchemical studies and occultism. Considered the most influential occultist of the 19th century

Zartusht-Behram: Zartusht-Namib, or Life of Zoroaster; what limited citations exist point to Zoroaster (or, Zarathustra), an ancient Iranian prophet (spiritual leader) who founded what is now known as Zoroastrianism; no further reference to this specific text could be found

Zanchi, Girolamo: (1516 – 1590) reformist Protestant clergyman

Zimmerman, Dr. : physician who studied the Swiss epidemic of Dysentery in Bern and Thurgau, and published an account in 1762

Zeno of Elea: 5th c. B.C. thinker known for propounding ingenious paradoxes

Ze[…]on: original text obscured; possible reference to tyrant of the ancient Greek city of Hermione (c.229 B.C.) of the name Xenon (Zenon), else (more likely) Athenian-born military leader, philosopher, and historian Xenophon (c. 430 – 354 B.C.)

Zophar the Naamathite: one of the three friends of Job in the Biblical story

Zwingli, Ulrich: (1484 – 1531) a leader of the Swiss Reformation